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Preprints, Working Papers, ... Year : 2016

Goldstone Cosmology


We investigate scalar-tensor theories where matter couples to the scalar field via a kinetically dependent conformal coupling. These models can be seen as the low-energy description of invariant field theories under a global Abelian symmetry. The scalar field is then identified with the Goldstone mode of the broken symmetry. It turns out that the properties of these models are very similar to the ones of ultralocal theories where the scalar-field value is directly determined by the local matter density. This leads to a complete screening of the fifth force in the Solar System and between compact objects, through the ultralocal screening mechanism. On the other hand, the fifth force can have large effects in extended structures with large-scale density gradients, such as galactic halos. Interestingly, it can either amplify or damp Newtonian gravity, depending on the model parameters. We also study the background cosmology and the linear cosmological perturbations. The background cosmology is hardly different from its $\Lambda$-CDM counterpart whilst cosmological perturbations crucially depend on whether the coupling function is convex or concave. For concave functions, growth is hindered by the repulsiveness of the fifth force whilst it is enhanced in the convex case. In both cases, the departures from the $\Lambda$-CDM cosmology increase on smaller scales and peak for galactic structures. For concave functions, the formation of structure is largely altered below some characteristic mass, as smaller structures are delayed and would form later through fragmentation, as in some warm dark matter scenarios. For convex models, small structures form more easily than in the $\Lambda$-CDM scenario. This could lead to an over-abundance of small clumps. We use a thermodynamic analysis and show that although convex models have a phase transition between homogeneous and inhomogeneous phases, on cosmological scales the system does not enter the inhomogeneous phase. On the other hand, for galactic halos, the coexistence of small and large substructures in their outer regions could lead to observational signatures of these models.
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cea-01460119 , version 1 (07-02-2017)



Philippe Brax, Patrick Valageas. Goldstone Cosmology. 2016. ⟨cea-01460119⟩
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