Change in Cofactor Specificity of Oxidoreductases by Adaptive Evolution of an Escherichia coli NADPH-Auxotrophic Strain - Institut de Biologie François JACOB Access content directly
Journal Articles mBio Year : 2021

Change in Cofactor Specificity of Oxidoreductases by Adaptive Evolution of an Escherichia coli NADPH-Auxotrophic Strain

Abstract

The nicotinamide cofactor specificity of enzymes plays a key role in regulating metabolic processes and attaining cellular homeostasis. Multiple studies have used enzyme engineering tools or a directed evolution approach to switch the cofactor preference of specific oxidoreductases. However, whole-cell adaptation toward the emergence of novel cofactor regeneration routes has not been previously explored. To address this challenge, we used an Escherichia coli NADPH-auxotrophic strain. We continuously cultivated this strain under selective conditions. After 500 to 1,100 generations of adaptive evolution using different carbon sources, we isolated several strains capable of growing without an external NADPH source. Most isolated strains were found to harbor a mutated NAD+-dependent malic enzyme (MaeA). A single mutation in MaeA was found to switch cofactor specificity while lowering enzyme activity. Most mutated MaeA variants also harbored a second mutation that restored the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. Remarkably, the best MaeA variants identified this way displayed overall superior kinetics relative to the wild-type variant with NAD+. In other evolved strains, the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd) was mutated to accept NADP+, thus enabling the pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes to regenerate NADPH. Interestingly, no other central metabolism oxidoreductase seems to evolve toward reducing NADP+, which we attribute to several biochemical constraints, including unfavorable thermodynamics. This study demonstrates the potential and biochemical limits of evolving oxidoreductases within the cellular context toward changing cofactor specificity, further showing that long-term adaptive evolution can optimize enzyme activity beyond what is achievable via rational design or directed evolution using small libraries.
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hal-04167096 , version 1 (12-04-2024)

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Madeleine Bouzon, Volker Döring, Ivan Dubois, Anne Berger, Gabriele Stoffel, et al.. Change in Cofactor Specificity of Oxidoreductases by Adaptive Evolution of an Escherichia coli NADPH-Auxotrophic Strain. mBio, 2021, 12 (4), pp.e00329-21. ⟨10.1128/mBio.00329-21⟩. ⟨hal-04167096⟩
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