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Journal Articles Nature Year : 2010

Périgord black truffle genome uncovers evolutionary origins and mechanisms of symbiosis

1 IAM - Interactions Arbres-Microorganismes
2 IPSP - CNR Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante [Torino, Italia]
3 AFMB - Architecture et fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques - UMR 6098
4 GENOSCOPE - Genoscope - Centre national de séquençage [Evry]
5 Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare
6 CEISAM - Chimie Et Interdisciplinarité : Synthèse, Analyse, Modélisation
7 LBGB - Laboratoire de Bioinformatique pour la Génomique et la Biodiversité
8 UMR 8030 - Génomique métabolique
9 CNR - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche [Milano]
10 DISB - Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari Universita di Urbino
11 INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
12 Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare
13 Dipartimento di Genetica e Biologia Molecolare
14 UBP - Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand 2
15 UNIBO - Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna = University of Bologna
16 Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale
17 Dipartimento di Biologia di Base ed Applicata
18 UNIVAQ - Università degli Studi dell'Aquila = University of L'Aquila
19 URGI - Unité de Recherche Génomique Info
21 Georg-August-University = Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
22 CNR - National Research Council of Italy | Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
23 AFMB - Architecture et fonction des macromolécules biologiques
24 BIOGER - BIOlogie et GEstion des Risques en agriculture
25 ISTM-CNR [Perugia - Milano] - Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari = Institute of Molecular Science and Technologies
Annegret Kohler
Claude Murat
Betina M Porcel
Sergio Arcioni
  • Function : Author
  • PersonId : 948046
Jean-Marc Aury
Annick Brun
  • Function : Author
  • PersonId : 770120
  • IdRef : 191648620
Marc Buée
France Denoeud
Benoit Marçais
Hadi Quesneville
Claudia Riccioni
  • Function : Author
Emilie Tisserant
  • Function : Author
  • PersonId : 770121
  • IdRef : 159351952
Patrick Wincker


The Périgord black truffle ($Tuber\ melanosporum$ Vittad.) and the Piedmont white truffle dominate today's truffle market. The hypogeous fruiting body of $T.\ melanosporum$ is a gastronomic delicacy produced by an ectomycorrhizal symbiont endemic to calcareous soils in southern Europe. The worldwide demand for this truffle has fuelled intense efforts at cultivation. Identification of processes that condition and trigger fruit body and symbiosis formation, ultimately leading to efficient crop production, will be facilitated by a thorough analysis of truffle genomic traits. In the ectomycorrhizal $Laccaria\ bicolor$, the expansion of gene families may have acted as a 'symbiosis toolbox'. This feature may however reflect evolution of this particular taxon and not a general trait shared by all ectomycorrhizal species. To get a better understanding of the biology and evolution of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, we report here the sequence of the haploid genome of $T.\ melanosporum$, which at $\sim$125 megabases is the largest and most complex fungal genome sequenced so far. This expansion results from a proliferation of transposable elements accounting for $\sim$58% of the genome. In contrast, this genome only contains $\sim$7,500 protein-coding genes with very rare multigene families. It lacks large sets of carbohydrate cleaving enzymes, but a few of them involved in degradation of plant cell walls are induced in symbiotic tissues. The latter feature and the upregulation of genes encoding for lipases and multicopper oxidases suggest that $T.\ melanosporum$ degrades its host cell walls during colonization. Symbiosis induces an increased expression of carbohydrate and amino acid transporters in both $L.\ bicolor$ and $T.\ melanosporum$, but the comparison of genomic traits in the two ectomycorrhizal fungi showed that genetic predispositions for symbiosis $-$'the symbiosis toolbox'$-$ evolved along different ways in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes
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Dates and versions

cea-00907731 , version 1 (17-10-2019)



Francis Martin, Annegret Kohler, Claude Murat, Raffaella Balestrini, Pedro M Coutinho, et al.. Périgord black truffle genome uncovers evolutionary origins and mechanisms of symbiosis. Nature, 2010, 464 (7291), pp.1033-1038. ⟨10.1038/nature08867⟩. ⟨cea-00907731⟩
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